Thursday, December 18, 2008
2. Six Sigma will become a "way of doing business" for Green Belts.
3. Green Belts will be able to explain why the y=f(x) formula is important for their process and business.
4. Becoming a Green Belt is an opportunity to gain valuable tools and experience.
5. Green Belts who display prowess of Six Sigma methods and produce significant benefits are usually promoted within organizations.
6. Unlike Black Belts who typically lead cross-functional projects, Six Sigma Green Belts usually work on projects within their own functional area.
7. Green Belts receive less instruction on Six Sigma methods, tools and techniques than Black Belts. They usually receive between three and 10 days, whereas Black Belts receive upwards of 20 days.
8. Six Sigma Green Belts are selected by the organization's management team.
9. Six Sigma Green Belts will be able to explain the Kano diagram and how it relates to customers.
10. Some organizations require all exempt employees to be "certified" Green Belts before promotion. Many require employees to at least undergo training.
11. Green Belts can be trained in classroom sessions, completely online, or a combination of the two (hybrid).
12. The Six Sigma Green Belt training curriculum varies from company to company.
13. Green Belt performance is usually evaluated in the employee's regular performance appraisal, although some companies may provide additional incentives for completing a project or becoming certified.
14. Six Sigma Green Belt certification requirements vary from company to company. Typical requirements include: completion of training, passing a written or online test, and completion of a Green Belt project.
15. Certification as a Green Belt from one company most likely will not be recognized at another company.
16. Some companies require Green Belts to complete one project per year to maintain certification requirements.
17. Green Belts are usually instructed on the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology and a limited tool set, including basic statistics. More advanced statistics usually require support from a Black Belt coach.
18. Six Sigma Green Belts should expect to schedule regularly occurring meetings with their Black Belt coach to review project progress and seek advice.
19. Project tollgate reviews usually take place with the organization's management team. Whether you like it or not, at some point you'll either get kudos or a kick in the bottom for your project's progress.
20. Green Belts will be able to create a histogram and pareto diagram, and know the difference between the two.
21. Adding Green Belt training and a project adds to what must be accomplished in the work day, but remember: productivity and benefits you gain from your project will make your life much easier later. Would you rather put out fires everyday or start preventing fires from occurring?
22. Not everyone on your Green Belt team is going to like the Six Sigma improvement process. Change is often difficult for people to embrace. Your leadership will play a critical role in shaping the team and the project's outcomes.
23. Putting off your Six Sigma Green Belt project until tomorrow will leave you a lot of work to accomplish the day before your tollgate review. Just because your project needs resuscitation and is critical to you does not automatically make it a priority for your Black Belt. Plan ahead and stay in control of your project plan.
24. Managing by data is always defensible. "Gut instinct" will not be valued in the business much longer. Green Belt projects help employees "see the light."
25. If you haven't dealt with finances much in the past, your Green Belt project is an opportunity to learn basic equations, quantify project benefits, and speak the language of management.
26. The Six Sigma Green Belt shouldn't necessarily know how to use every tool available. They should, however, know of the existence of tools and be able to ask Black Belts for help.
27. Six Sigma Green Belts will lead the data collection process of their project and validate the measurement system.
28. The Green Belt should expect to work on and improve their team facilitation skills.
29. The Six Sigma Green Belt will be able to calculate the mean and standard deviation of their process data sets.
30. The Six Sigma Green Belt will be able to calculate short term and long term Sigma value of their project's process.
31. Green Belts are selected because they are business professionals, not Quality gurus or statistical geniuses.
32. Green Belts will know how to perform basic statistical tests using a statistical software package like Minitab or JMP.
33. Green Belts will be able to develop a charter and SIPOC for their project.
34. Six Sigma Green Belts will understand how to create a Cause And Effect (Fishbone) diagram to identify possible causes of process defects.
35. Green Belts will be able to lead brainstorming sessions with their project team.
36. Green Belts can make their bosses and co-workers look good by using graphs to show process improvement in a highly visible and easily understood visual form.
37. Green Belts can help win support for Six Sigma by preventing the defects that create so many headaches for their bosses and co-workers.
38. Green Belts can help overcome resistance to change by involving their co-workers in the process and leading them to data-driven solutions.
39. Green Belts should only start a project if there is top management sponsorship willing to commit necessary resources.
40. Green Belts should have a solid communication plan that is reviewed at each meeting to ensure that the right information about the project goes up, down and out to all stakeholders.
Monday, December 15, 2008
Friday, December 12, 2008
- European Software Institute, ESI
Own description: "ESI - Tecnalia"
- QAI Asia - Quality Assurance Institute.
Own description: "QAI provides inputs to knowledge organizations seeking ISO9000, Software Engineering Institutes, Software CMM, People CMM, Six Sigma, Knowledge Management and other framework–based business and process improvements."
- Wipro - Software development outsourcing and CMM/CMMI based consulting, assessments and training.
Own description: "Wipro Technologies is the No 1 provider of integrated business, technology and process solutions on a global delivery platform."
- DQS India - CMMI training and assessments, and other quality management services. Located in New Delhi, India
Own description: "DQS Certification, SEI Transition Partner, Carnegie Mellon, USA, Partner AFNOR Groupe, AFAQ-EAQA, Fifth Largest Certification Organization, CMMI, ISO"
- EdistaLearning - E-learning courses on Software Engineering and Management.
Own description: "EdistaLearning offers elearning courses on Software Engineering and Management (SE and M), BPO, CMMI, People CMM, ITSM and Six Sigma. Register Now for a free demo account."
- Integrated System Diagnostics - CMM / CMMI based software process improvement consulting, training and appraisals.
Own description: "Integrated System Diagnostics Incorporated can assist your business with model based process improvements. We offer Intro to CMMI and High Maturity Lead Appraisers and many services including appraisal, consulting, training and more."
- Nihilent - Software development and testing services, and CMM/CMMI consulting and training. Located in India with offices in other countries..
Own description: "Nihilent"
- Object Training - Training in software engineering technologies, located in Australia.
Own description: "Object Training | Be Smarter. Quicker."
- Systems and Software Consortium
Own description: "SSCI - Systems and Software Consortium"
- Alcyonix - Software process improvement consulting.
Own description: "Alcyonix - Welcome"
- Compita - Process management services.
Own description: "Leading worldwide software process improvement consultancy, providing CMM, CMMI and ISO15504 assessment expertise, skills and training to the IT community. Providers of the Process Professional Assessment method."
- CyberQ Consulting - Process improvement and information security consulting, training and appraisals.
Own description: "CyberQ Consulting - Management Consultants in India in IT and Telecom, Training and consultancy in Software Quality Assurance, CMMI, CMMI Consultants, CMMI Consultants Delhi Gurgaon Noida, SEI CMM, ISO 9000, Software Metrics, Software Quality Managemen..."
- Dunstan Thomas - Training in various software development related topics.
Own description: "Dunstan Thomas provides Pensions Administration and Pensions Illustration Software provider for the UK Life and Pensions market."
- Lamri - CMMI appraisals and training, located in North Yorkshire, UK.
Own description: "Lamri - Process Improvement Management Consultancy"
- Method Park - Consulting and training on software processes, software engineering and project management in Germany and USA.
Own description: "Greater Software Quality using a proven process portal with real world CMMI & Automotive SPICE Consulting & Engineering experience."
- Process Group - CMM / CMMI based software process improvement consulting and training.
Own description: "The Process Group"
- Process Improvement Associate - CMM training and assessment services.
Own description: "Lowest cost CBA-IPI assessment and CMM training"
- Process Inc - CMM / CMMI related training, appraisals and consulting.
Own description: "Process and project appraisals (CMM, CMMI, SCAMPI, Project Risk,), training and improvement coaching"
- Q-Success - Software Quality Management Consulting. Owner of Software-Pointers. com.
Own description: "Q-Success offers consulting and training for SW-CMM/CMMI based software process improvement and software quality assurance"
- SE-Cure - Training and consulting on CMMI and specific process areas, in Switzerland.
Own description: "SE-CURE AG offers high-consulting services to enable informed decision-making for software manufacturers"
- Software Management Solutions - Software process consulting and training,
Own description: "Software Management Solutions"
- Software Six Sigma
Own description: "Management consulting and training for software process improvement. We use our extensive experience in CMM, PSP, TSP and the application of six sigma techniques to software to help our clients develop and implement an integrated approach to SPI throug..."
- Software System Quality Consulting - Consulting and training for software, hardware, and systems engineering process improvement.
Own description: "Consulting services for CMM, CMMI, ISO 9000, 9001, 9000-3, BPR, Business Process Re-engineering, SQA, SPI, Software Testing, Software Quality Assurance, Software Inspections, Hardware Inspections, Business Process Reengnineering, ISO 9000 Assessments, ..."
- SPI Partners - Dutch group of independent consultants.
Own description: "SPI Partners. The Dutch website with answers to all your Software Process Improvement questions."
- Tantara - Practical advice for software process improvement.
Own description: "Hotlist (links), articles, job aids (toolkit) and more for: software process improvement, software quality assurance / management, ISO 9000-3,..."
- Trimentus - CMM, CMMI, P-CMM, Six Sigma process improvement consulting, training and appraisal services.
Own description: "ITIL v3 Foundation by Trimentus Chennai adds value our ISO, CMMI, Quality Certification Services, S/W testing, Training from Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad India"
- Abridge Technology - CMM / CMMI based software process improvement consulting and training.
Own description: "Abridge Technology"
- Allied Boston Consultants India - CMMI, ISO 9000 and training and consulting in India.
Own description: "ISO 9000 and TQM Consultants India, ISO 9001 Consultant India, ISO 27001 Service Providers, SEI CMMI Consultants in India, ISO 14001 Consultancy Services India, ISO 20000 BS 15000 Service Providers, ISO Product Certification Company in India, Training ..."
- ASK Process
Own description: "ASK Process, Inc. helps software development organizations improve quality, streamline processes, cut defect rates, slash testing time, and trim development costs."
- Broadsword - CMMI appraisals, consulting and training in Waterford, Michigan, USA.
Own description: "CMMI-SVC, CMMI-Services, CMMI-DEV, CMMI Appraisers, CMMI Certification, CMMI Appraisal, CMM Appraisal, CMM Certification, CMMI Training, CMM Training, CMMI Michigan, CMMI, Agile, Agile CMMI, Lean CMMI, CMMI Consulting, CMM Consulting, CMMI Assessments, ..."
- Management Information Systems - Software process improvement training and consulting.
Own description: "Index"
- Process and Product Quality Consulting - CMMI consulting, training, and appraisals in Houston, Texas, USA.
Own description: "Process and Product Quality Consulting (PPQC) is an SEI Partner that offers a full suite of products and services to support organizations using the CMMI."
- QAI Middle East and Africa - Quality Assurance Institute. Provides CMMI training, consulting and appraisal services.
Own description: "Quality Assurance Institute - Middle East and Africa"
- Wibas - CMMI assessments, consulting and training in Germany.
Own description: "Leading Change. Sharing Knowledge."
- People, Process & Performance - CMM/CMMI training, assessments and consulting in UK.
Own description: "Home"
- Applied Process Solutions - Consulting, appraisals and training for CMMI, ISO 9000.
Own description: "Today's business environment is highly competitive, and organizations must work to continuously improve their performance to meet the challenges they face."
- Fusion Technologies - Iso 9000 and project management consulting and training in Secunderabad, India.
Own description: "Company Profile"
- Process Plus - CMM / CMMI based process improvement consulting, training and appraisals.
Own description: "Process Plus Inc provides software process improvement engineering assessment consulting and training services to all industries as a means of improving productivity and compliance."
- DQS Certification - CMMI consulting, training, and appraisals in India.
Own description: "DQS Certification India provided various CMMI Services like CMMI Certification, CMMI Assessment, CMMI Training, CMMI Appraisal, CMMI Lead Appraiser, SCAMPI Assessments, Process Improvements"
Wednesday, September 24, 2008
ISO 14001:2004 - Environmental Management System
OHSAS 18001 - Occupational Health & Safety Management System
ISO / IEC 27001 - Information Security Management System
ISO / TS 16949 - Quality Management System for Automotive
ISO 22000 - Food Safety Management System
AS 9100 - Quality Management System for Aerospace
ISO 13485 - Quality Management System for Medical Devices
TL 9000 - Quality Management System for Telecommunication
SA 8000 - Social Accountability System
Monday, August 18, 2008
The ISO model is based on these principles:
- Customer Focus
- Involvement of People
- The Process Approach
- A System approach to Management
- Continual Improvement
- Factual approach to decision making
- Mutually beneficial Supplier Relationship
Sunday, August 17, 2008
Standards make an enormous and positive contribution to most aspects of our lives.
It ensures desirable characteristics of products & services such as quality, environmental friendliness, safety, reliability, efficiency.
When standards are absent, we soon notice.
ISO 9001:2000 (Quality Management Systems)
which gives the requirements for quality management systems, is now firmly established as the globally implemented standard for providing assurance about the ability to satisfy quality requirements and to enhance customer satisfaction in supplier-customer relationships
ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental Management Systems)
which gives the requirements for environmental management systems, confirms its global relevance for organizations wishing to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner.
Sunday, August 10, 2008
If KBF’s are so easily defined, why is it that firms fail to successfully incorporate them into their infrastructure? Typically, firms tend to forget their own self-declared motivations behind the actions they choose to execute on a daily basis. Due to the ever-increasing size and multiplying divisions within the average firm, the core elements intended to guide the firm’s decisions, often become lost in the multi-directional atmosphere. KBF’s , as declared core elements which glue the firm’s actions together through specified indicators, act as the prerequisite focus designed to guide a firm’s actions. The business criteria for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award states, “The measures or indicators you select should best represent the factors that lead to improved customer, operational, and financial performance. A comprehensive set of measures or indicators tied to customer and/or organizational performance requirements represents a clear basis for aligning all activities with your organization’s goals.” Through understanding, identifying, integrating, and synthesizing KBF’s into core business practices, the critical gap between product/service provisions and customer, operational, and financial needs can be bridged.
KBF’s, found within customer, operational, and financial needs, can be identified by the means of active & passive data gathering. For customers, active data gathering can include things such as focus groups and surveys. Passive data gathering is also an effective tool, and can be carried out via comment cards and internet response databases. On the operational end, active data gathering may include quality teams, whereas passive data gathering might incorporate statistical process control measures and their resulting data. Financially, a firm may choose an active data gathering method such as the formation of a marketing survey team. Passive data gathering techniques such as reporting off of financial results statements may also be opted. Regardless of the tools utilized, firms should strive to build feedback loops and data gathering methodologies into their system structure in order to facilitate continuous improvements. The business criteria for the MBNQA (Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) declares, “Through the analysis of data from the tracking processes, the measures or indicators themselves may be evaluated and changed to better support such goals.”
Integration of Key Business Factors becomes the next step after the identification process. The integration process is more objective, and can be outlined through what the MBNQA calls the Areas to Address, or the “Where” of the KBF implementation process. The areas of integration include Organizational Environment, Organizational Relationships, Competitive Environment, Strategic Challenges, and Performance Improvement Systems. If for example, one of your identified KBF’s happened to be “maintaining short cycle times”, you could address the category of Organizational Relationships through working with your suppliers toward the implementation of a JIT (Just in Time) operations system. The selected KBF should then be integrated into the other four Areas to Address as well.
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award outlines three Evaluation Dimensions within the Areas to Address. The Evaluation Dimensions act as the means of measurement for KBF animation, answering the “What & How” of the KBF integration process. The first two Evaluation Dimensions are Approach & Deployment. They pose the following questions; What do you do? How do you do it? How repeatable is it? How do you measure it? And how do you improve upon what you do? The third aspect of the Evaluation Dimensions is the Results How are you improving over time? And how is your performance relative to the competition and industry standards? When these questions have been answered and satisfied within the Areas to Address, the integration process can be considered complete. Ultimately, any firm seeking to properly integrate KBF’s, will end up with a company that plans, measures, trains, controls, processes, and leads by means of it’s KBF’s. category, which asks; How are you doing?
Finally, you have a business that has successfully identified and integrated its Key Business Factors into the backbone of its company. But how do you retain it, infusing it permanently and continuously? Synthesizing, a firms Key Business Factors can be critical for tying together the loose ends that have a tendency to untie over time. Two key steps should be taken when seeking to synthesize the results. Pervasive alignment of KBF’s and pervasive focus on KBF’s. Ensuring that a firms KBF’s are aligned and focused throughout the areas of Leadership, Strategic Planning, Customer and Market Focus, Information and Analysis, Human Resource Focus, and Process Management, will, as the MBNQA points out, bear fruit in the firm’s Business Results. From such results, the firm can begin to learn how to anticipate how it’s KBF’s will impact and drive customer, operational, and financial results. From there, it becomes a repetitive cycle of planning, aligning and focusing accordingly.
In summary, Key Business Factors must be clearly defined as the focus behind the firm’s decisions, permeating every action therein. Through proper and thorough integration and synthesis, Key Business Factors can, and will, become the way-signs which direct your firm down the road to success.
Friday, August 8, 2008
Quality is the totality of product attributes that are important to our customers. This quality initiative addresses the topic of managing quality of a business application software product.
For Example, a business application software product is a documented set of tools to capture, validate and archive business transactions and to subsequently transform historical data into meaningful information for decision making and the guidance of an enterprise.
The first phase of this initiative defines the spectrum of quality attributes for such a product and propose a priority of importance (ranking) for these attributes.
Tuesday, July 22, 2008
"The cost of quality."
It’s a term that's widely used – and widely misunderstood.
The "cost of quality" isn't the price of creating a quality product or service. It's the cost of NOT creating a quality product or service.
Every time work is redone, the cost of quality increases. Obvious examples include:
- The reworking of a manufactured item.
- The retesting of an assembly.
- The rebuilding of a tool.
- The correction of a bank statement.
- The reworking of a service, such as the reprocessing of a loan operation or the replacement of a food order in a restaurant.
In short, any cost that would not have been expended if quality were perfect contributes to the cost of quality.
Total Quality Costs
As the figure below shows, quality costs are the total of the cost incurred by:
- Investing in the prevention of nonconformance to requirements.
- Appraising a product or service for conformance to requirements.
- Failing to meet requirements.
Quality Costs—general description
The costs of all activities specifically designed to prevent poor quality in products or services.
Examples are the costs of:
The costs associated with measuring, evaluating or auditing products or services to assure conformance to quality standards and performance requirements.
These include the costs of:
The costs resulting from products or services not conforming to requirements or customer/user needs. Failure costs are divided into internal and external failure categories.
Internal Failure Costs
Failure costs occurring prior to delivery or shipment of the product, or the furnishing of a service, to the customer.
Examples are the costs of:
External Failure Costs
Failure costs occurring after delivery or shipment of the product — and during or after furnishing of a service — to the customer.
Examples are the costs of:
Total Quality Costs:
The sum of the above costs. This represents the difference between the actual cost of a product or service and what the reduced cost would be if there were no possibility of substandard service, failure of products or defects in their manufacture.
Sunday, July 20, 2008
Organizations of all types and sizes have come to realize that their main focus must be to satisfy their customers.
This applies to industrial firms, retail and wholesale businesses, government bodies, service companies, nonprofit organizations and every subgroup within an organization.
Two important questions:
- Who are the customers?
- What does it take to satisfy them?
Who Are the Customers?
Customers include anyone the organization supplies with products or services. The table below illustrates some supplier-customer relationships. (Note that many organizations are simultaneously customers and suppliers.)
|Supplier-customer relationship examples|
|Supplier||Customer||Product or Service|
|Automobile manufacturer||Individual customers||Cars|
|Automobile manufacturer||Car dealer||Sales literature, etc.|
|Bank||Checking account holders||Secure check handling|
|High school||Students and parents||Education|
|County recorder||Residents of county||Maintenance of records|
|Hospital||Insurance company||Data on patients|
|Insurance company||Hospital||Payment for services|
|Steel cutting department||Punch press department||Steel sheets|
|Punch press department||Spot weld department||Shaped parts|
|All departments||Payroll department||Data on hours worked, etc.|
What Does It Take to Satisfy Customers?
Don’t assume you know what the customer wants. There are many examples of errors in this area, such as “new Coke” and car models that didn’t sell. Many organizations expend considerable time, money and effort determining the “voice” of the customer, using tools such as customer surveys, focus groups and polling.
Satisfying the customer includes providing what is needed when it’s needed. In many situations, it’s up to the customer to provide the supplier with requirements. For example, the payroll department should inform other departments of the exact format for reporting the numbers of hours worked by employees. If the payroll department doesn’t do this job properly, it bears some responsibility for the variation in reporting that will occur.
Excerpted from Donald W. Benbow, Ahmad K. Elshennawy and H. Fred Walker, The Certified Quality Technician Handbook, ASQ Quality Press, 2003, pages 1-2.
Friday, July 18, 2008
Juran describes quality from the customer perspective as having two aspects: higher quality means a greater number of features that meet customers' needs. The second aspect relates to "freedom from trouble": higher quality consists of fewer defects.
As a result of the power and clarity of Joseph Juran's thinking and the scope of his influence, business leaders, legions of managers and his fellow theorists worldwide recognize Dr. Juran as one of "the vital few" —a seminal figure in the development of management theory. Juran has contributed more to the field and over a longer period of time than any other person, and yet, feels he has barely scratched the surface of his subject. "My job of contributing to the welfare of my fellow man," writes Juran, "is the great unfinished business.
Tuesday, July 15, 2008
W. Edwards Deming in the 1950's proposed that business processes should be analyzed and measured to identify sources of variations that cause products to deviate from customer requirements. He recommended that business processes be placed in a continuous feedback loop so that managers can identify and change the parts of the process that need improvements. As a teacher, Deming created a (rather oversimplified) diagram to illustrate this continuous process, commonly known as the PDCA cycle for Plan, Do, Check, Act*:
- PLAN: Design or revise business process components to improve results
- DO: Implement the plan and measure its performance
- CHECK: Assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers
- ACT: Decide on changes needed to improve the process
Deming's PDCA cycle can be illustrated as follows:
Friday, July 11, 2008
Implementing a Quality Management System (QMS) within an organization needs to be a decision by top management. The objective of the quality system needs to be clearly defined so that the system can be effective.
The design and implementation of a quality management system will vary depending on the type, size and products of the organization. Each company will have it's own objective, however most companies objective is to increase profitability. A Quality Management System will assist by:
managing costs and risks
increasing effectiveness and productivity
identifying improvement opportunities
increasing customer satisfaction
A well managed quality system will have an impact on:
customer loyalty and repeat business
flexibility and ability to respond to market opportunities
effective and efficient use of resources
participation and motivation of human resources
control on all processes
The objectives of your Quality Management System should mirror the above in some form.
ISO 9001:2000 requires a quality system to be documented, tested, measured and assessed.
Management commitment is essential for the implementation and ongoing success of the Quality Management System.
QMS objectives must be measurable and reflect the overall company objectives.
The QMS must be able to be managed properly, adequate resources must be allocated.
The system must be reviewed regularly and measured for effectiveness, adjustments must be made to reflect major changes to the organization and business practices.
The system must be practical and accessible to all employees within the organisation.
It is not essential to gain accreditation for a Quality Management System to work effectively. It depends on the organization if they wish to gain accreditation, however the benefits should be considered:
Your company will be recognized as an organization that is committed to providing quality products, improvement and customer satisfaction.
You will gain respect through the industry as a fully accredited quality company.
Friday, July 4, 2008
Quality in everyday life and business, engineering and manufacturing has a non-inferiority, superiority or usefulness of something. This is the most common interpretation of the term.
A subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition.
In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:
1. the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs;
2. a product or service free of deficiencies.
According to Joseph Juran, quality means “fitness for use;” according to Philip Crosby, it means “conformance to requirements.”
Reference: Wiki, ASQ